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Computer Science Junction

Model PaperDatabase Management System NCS 502Time : 3 Hrs                                                                           MM:100SECTION- A1.      Attempt all parts. All parts carry equal marks.                  ...
Computer Science Junction...
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  June 1, 2017, 6:20 am
Paging Concepts in Memory Management Paging is a memory address scheme that permit physical address space of a process to be non contiguous.Paging avoids external fragmentation and need of compaction.In Paging method physical memory space is divided in to fixed size blocks called frames and process logical memory space  is divided into block of the same size known as pages. Size of a page is equal to the size of a frame.                                        Figure : Paging Model for Logical and physical memory. Every address generated the CPU is divided into two parts: a page ...
Computer Science Junction...
Tag :Operating System Objective Questions
  May 19, 2017, 6:47 am
"वर्तमान में चिकत्सा के क्षेत्र में का Electroencephalogram (EEG ) अपना विशेष महत्व है। इलेक्ट्रोइन्सेफलोग्राम (EEG) तकनीक की मदद से मस्तिष्क की गतिविधियों के आधार  पर  मानसिक अवस्था की सामान्य और असामान्य स्थिति का पता लगाया जाता  है। इस तकनीक के माध्यम से मरीज का इलाज कर...
Computer Science Junction...
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  May 14, 2017, 5:47 pm
Questions Bank for Operating System Subject                                                                 Unit 1 Type 1. 2 Marks Questions(1) What is Spooling?(2) What is system call?(3) What do you mean by kernel?(4) What is Operating System?(5) What is reentrant kernel?(6) Symmetric and Asymmetric Multiprocessing.(7) Write the difference between multiprogramming and multiprocessing.(8) What is shell?Type 2: Short Note Type Write the short note on the following(1) Real Time System(2) Multiprogramming system(3) Multip...
Computer Science Junction...
Tag :Operating System Objective Questions
  May 14, 2017, 7:14 am
What is Swapping ?Removing suspended or preempted processes from memory and their subsequent bringing back is called swapping. The basic idea of swapping is to treat main memory as a ‘pre-emptable’ resource. Lifting the program from the memory and placing it on the disk is called ‘Swapping out’. To bring the program again from the disk into the main memory is called ‘Swapping in’.Normally, a blocked process is swapped out so as to create available space for a ready process. This results in improving CPU utilization.Advantages of SwappingSwapping may also be helpful for improving processor utilization in partitioned memory environments by increasing the ratio of ready to resident ...
Computer Science Junction...
Tag :Operating System Objective Questions
  May 12, 2017, 6:32 am
How to protect memory in contiguous memory allocation methods ?In order to understand the concept of Memory protection first we need to know that in Memory each user process has its own address space. So Operating system must be protected from user process and each user address space should be protected from other user process. First there is a need to determine the legal address that a process may access and to ensure that process may access only these legal addresses. Protection can be provide by using two register known as Base and Limit register. The base register holds the smallest legal physical memory address; the limit register specifies the size of the range. For example, if the bas...
Computer Science Junction...
Tag :Operating System Objective Questions
  April 30, 2017, 10:35 am
Dynamic LoadingIn our discussion so far, it has been necessary for the entire program and all data of a process to be in physical memory for the process to execute. The size of a process has thus been limited to the size of physical memory. To obtain better memory-space utilization, we can use dynamic With dynamic loading, a routine is not loaded until it is called. All routines are kept on disk in a relocatable load format. The main program is loaded into memory and is executed. When a routine needs to call another routine, the calling routine first checks to see whether the other routine has been loaded. If it has not, the relocatable linking loader is called to load the desired routine in...
Computer Science Junction...
Tag :Operating System Objective Questions
  April 27, 2017, 7:03 pm
 Contiguous Memory Management MethodsThere are following types of methods to partitioned the main memory in a contiguous manner.1. Single Contiguous Memory Management SystemIn this scheme, the physical memory is divided into two contiguous areas. One of them is permanently allocated to the resident portion of the Operating System. Mostly, the Operating System resides in low memory (0 to P as shown in Figure 1). The remaining memory is allocated to transient or user processes, which are loaded and executed one at a time, in response to user commands. This process is run to completion and then the next process is brought in memory. In this scheme, the starting physical addr...
Computer Science Junction...
Tag :Operating System Objective Questions
  April 22, 2017, 5:46 pm
Concept of RelocationThe term program relocatability refers to the ability to load and execute a given program into memory. In reality, the program may be loaded at different memory locations, which are called physical addresses.Relocation is to find a way to map virtual addresses onto physical addresses. Depending on when and how the mapping from the virtual address space to the physical address space takes place in a given relocation scheme, there are two basic types of relocation:(1)   Static RelocationStatic relocation is performed before or during the loading of the program into memory, by a relocating linker/ loader. In systems with static relocation a swapped-out process mus...
Computer Science Junction...
Tag :Operating System Objective Questions
  April 15, 2017, 7:18 pm
Introduction to Bare Machine and Resident Monitor Bare MachineThe simplest form of organization of main memory is Bare Machine where the entire memory is given to the designer, there is no partition in the memory. Now it is up to the designer to decide that which part of the memory will contain the monitor and which part of the memory will be used for storing of temporary data, for storage of raw data, for storage of processed data, everything.So everything has to be decided by the system designer. Usually this is the type of memory organization which is used for implementation of dedicated systems that is if I wanted to design a computer which is not to be used for general purpose comp...
Computer Science Junction...
Tag :Operating System Objective Questions
  April 9, 2017, 8:17 am
Top Down ApproachA top-down design is essentially breaking down a system to gain insight into its compositional sub-systems. In a top-down approach an overview of the system is first formulated, specifying but not detailing any first-level subsystems. Each subsystem is then refined in greater detail, sometimes in many additional subsystem levels, until the entire specification is reduced to base elements. In short the top down approach means decomposing of the solution procedure into subtasks. This approach produces a readable and modular code that can be easily understood and maintained.Steps for breaking a problem into sub-problems involve the following steps:1. Start with a simple and sho...
Computer Science Junction...
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  April 4, 2017, 8:00 pm
Most Common Programming Errors in CHello FriendsIn this post, I am telling about some common programming errors that are mostly occurred at the time of writing a program in C Programming language. These errors are as follows:     (1) Missing semicolon: Every C statement must end with a semicolon. A missing semicolon isconfusion to the compiler and may result in misleading error messages.(2) Missing braces: Very common error as it is common to forget a closing brace. Number ofopening braces should match number of closing braces.(3) Undeclared variables: C requires declaration of variables before their use.Forgetting the precedence of operators: Expression are evaluated accordin...
Computer Science Junction...
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  March 24, 2017, 6:35 am
Difference between Syntactic and Semantic ErrorSyntactic errors also known as compilation errors are caused by violation of the grammar rules of the language. The compiler detects, isolate these errors and give terminate the source program after listing the errors. Some of the common syntactic errors are:• missing or misplaced.• missing return type for a procedure.• missing or duplicate variable declaration.Semantic errors are logical errors. If there is a semantic error in a program, it will run successfully, in the sense that the computer will not generate any error messages, but it will not do the right thing. The problem is that the meaning of the program (its semantics) is wrong. ...
Computer Science Junction...
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  March 22, 2017, 6:28 am
Dynamic Memory Allocation in CMost commonly used dynamic memory allocation functions:malloc( ): It is a memory allocation function that allocates requested size of bytes and returns apointer to the first byte of the allocated space. The malloc function returns a pointer of type void so we can assign it to any type of pointer. It takes the the following form:ptr= (cast type *) malloc(byte-size);where ptr is a pointer of type cast-type. For example, the statementx=(int *) malloc(10 *sizeof(int)) means that a memory space equivalent to 10times the size of an int byte is reserved and the address of the first byte of memory allocated isassigned to the pointer x of int type.The malloc functi...
Computer Science Junction...
Tag :Pointer in C
  March 19, 2017, 3:30 am
A C program to copy the contents of one string to another using a pointer method is:#include#include#include#define length 50void main(){char *s1,*s2,c;int i=0;clrscr();s1=(char*)malloc(length*sizeof(char));s2=(char*)malloc(length*sizeof(char));printf("enter string\n");gets(s1);while((c=*(s1+i))!='\0'){s2[i]=c;i++;}s2[i]='\0';printf("Copied string is\n");printf("%s",s2);getch();}...
Computer Science Junction...
Tag :Pointer in C
  March 17, 2017, 3:00 am
Accessing the value of an integer through pointer.A pointer is a variable which contains the address in memory of another variable. We can have a pointer to any variable type. The unary or monadic operator & gives the “address of a variable”. The indirection or dereference operator * gives the “contents of an object pointed to by a pointer”.A pointer is declared as follows:int *ptr;where *ptr is a pointer of int type.A Program to display the value of an int variable through pointer is listed below#includevoid main(){int k;int *ptr;clrscr();k=10;ptr=&k;printf("\n Value of k is %d\n\n",k);printf("%d is stored at addr %u\n",k,&k);printf("%d is stored at addr %...
Computer Science Junction...
Tag :Pointer in C
  March 15, 2017, 6:00 am
How to use a pointer to structure in C Programming?When pointer to structure is incremented then the pointer points to the next block ofmemory. As for examplestruct rec{int a;char b[10], *c;};main(){struct rec *obj;obj=(struct rec *)malloc(sizeof(struct rec));obj->a=10;strcpy(obj->b, “XYZ”);strcpy(obj->c, “ABC”);printf (“\n%d\t%s\t%s”,obj->a, obj->b, obj->c);//Incrementing pointer to structureobj++;obj->a=15;strcpy(obj->b, “PQR”);strcpy(obj->c, “MNO”);printf (“\n%d\t%s\t%s”,obj->a, obj->b, obj->c);}In the above program, dynamic memory allocation is used for assigning one block of structurein obj. Later the pointer to structure (obj)...
Computer Science Junction...
Tag :Pointer in C
  March 13, 2017, 9:23 pm
POINTER IN C LANGUAGEPointer plays a very important role in C language.Pointers are the variables which store the address of another variable.              The general syntax for defining a pointer is as follows:-                                * ;For example: -    if we define.                               &nbs...
Computer Science Junction...
Tag :Pointer in C
  March 12, 2017, 2:38 pm
What are File Pointers ?C communicates with files using a new datatype called a file pointer. This type is defined within stdio.h, and written as FILE *. A file pointer called output_file is declared in a statement like FILE *output_file; Opening a file pointer using fopenYour program must open a file before it can access it. This is done using the fopen function, which returns the required file pointer. If the file cannot be opened for any reason then the value NULL will be returned. You will usually use fopen as follows if ((output_file = fopen("output_file", "w")) == NULL)     fprintf(stderr, "Cannot open %s\n", "output_file"); fopen takes two arguments, both are...
Computer Science Junction...
Tag :File Handling
  March 11, 2017, 8:10 am
java is an Object  Oriented Programming Language. Which is mostly used to develop Windows based Software  as well as Web Based Project. It is good to have good knowledge about a programming language and practical knowledge for developing program in that particular language. In the technical interview for the post of  Java Developer some basic questions are asked. In this post I am telling about questions at basic level. These questions are related to Variable, operators, JVM and Jdk, Interface and access specifier. Basics Important Questions  for freshers from Core JavaQ             Can there be an abstract ...
Computer Science Junction...
Tag :core java interviews questions
  March 9, 2017, 6:25 am
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